According to Bates there is no adequate instructional design method or model for selecting media. However, he does recommend a method that will structure the selection process:. Educational technology in way could be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, e. But usually its history is made to start with educational film 's or Sidney Pressey's mechanical teaching machines in the '.
First large scale usage of new technologies can be traced to US WWII training of soldiers through training films and other mediated materials. Today, presentation-based technology, based on the idea that people can learn contents trough aural and visual reception, exists in many forms, e. Another interesting invention of the 's was hypertext , i. Bush's memex. The 's led to two major still popular designs. Skinners work led to "programmed instruction" focusing on the formulation of behavioral objectives, breaking instructional content into small units and rewarding correct responses early and often.
Advocating a mastery approach to learning based on his taxonomy of intellectual behaviors, Bloom endorsed instructional techniques that varied both instruction and time according to learner requirements. Models based on these designs were usually referred to as computer-based training " CBT , Computer-aided instruction or computer-assisted instruction CAI in the 's through the 's.
In a more simplified form they correspond to today's "e-contents" that often form the core of "e-learning" set-ups, sometimes also referred to as web-based training WBT or e-instruction. The course designer divides learning contents into smaller chunks of text augmented with graphics and multimedia presentation.
Frequent Multiple Choice questions with immediate feedback are added for self-assessment and guidance. The 's and 's produced a variety of schools that can be put under the umbrella of the label Computer-based learning CBL. Frequently based on constructivist and cognitivist learning theories, these environments focused on teaching both abstract and domain-specific problem solving.
Preferred technologies were micro-worlds computer environments were learners could explore and build , simulations computer environments where learner can play with parameters of dynamic systems and hypertext. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid 80s and became popular by the mid's, in particular through the World-Wide Web WWW , eMail and Forums. There is a difference between two major forms of online learning. The earlier type, based on either Computer Based Training CBT or Computer-based learning CBL , focused on the interaction between the student and computer drills plus tutorials on one hand or micro-worlds and simulations on the other.
Both can be delivered today over the WWW. Today, the prevailing paradigm in the regular school system is Computer-mediated communication CMC , where the primary form of interaction is between students and instructors, mediated by the computer. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. It also provides tools for student and curriculum management.
- Definitions of Educational Technology.
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- Encyclopedia of Terminology for Educational Communications and Technology.
- Encyclopedia of terminology for educational communications and technology - Edited by Rita C Richey!
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In addition to classroom enhancement, learning technologies also play a major role in full-time distance teaching. Courses addressed to smaller groups frequently use blended or hybrid designs that mix presence courses usually in the beginning and at the end of a module with distance activities and use various pedagogical styles e. The 's emergence of multiple mobile and ubiquitous technologies gave a new impulse to situated learning theories favoring learning-in-context scenarios.
Some literature uses the concept of integrated learning to describe blended learning scenarios that integrate both school and authentic e. Web services, both educational and non-educational gain popularity.
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The 's include MOOCs , a consolidation of rapid elearning in business, a return of a type of simulations through serious gaming and a technical trend towards delivery with HTML5 as opposed to proprietary solutions. Non-educational on-line applications are main-stream now, e. In addition, there is a lot of noise about learning analytics and statistical AI to analyze the data. Other topics like PLE or educational badges don't have much success. Simple content delivery and simple student management and assessment tools are still king as demonstrated by the UK-based Association for Learning Technology Annual Surveys.
See also the very complete until the early s History of virtual learning environments on Wikipedia or the more recent the 25 Years of Ed Tech blog posts by Martin Weller. Many topics fade in and out over longer cycle typically about 15 years , e. Today we are facing a wide range of pedagogical strategies and available technologies.
Classification schemes taking into account both dimensions can become very complex, e. We will present both simple and more complex attempts but also take into account that pedagogical designs and technologies can be combined in certain ways, e. See also: the educational technologies article for a technology-centered overview.
This typology reflects 2 fundamentally different stances that can be found as well in research and practice. This distinction is similar to Schulmeister's e-learning types A and B. This framework was then used to evaluate functionality of technology. It also can be be used to categorize current on-line teaching practice. Multimedia presentations Computer-based training.
On can argue that the Baumgartner and Kalz typology does a good job in relating learning to teaching to technology. However, for a more differentiated view of learning, see the learning types and learning levels discussion. See some further discussion in the learning theory and pedagogic strategy article. Moore distinguishes three types of interaction in distance education and that also can be useful to categorize educational technologies:.
According to Lou et al. Researchers in educational technology adopt different stances of what it means to practice academic research.
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One may initially distinguish a series of levels going from the conceptual to the technical:. Some researchers may combine a fundamental research perspective with a particular kind of instructional design and a particular kind of technology. Depending upon these options, research interests and research methodology will not be the same. From the possible combinations there are probably two major strands of thought that can be identified:.
However, since it addresses also all fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization, educational technology makes use of the full range of modern social science and life sciences methodology. Globally speaking, research methodology for educational technology relies on general research methodology, in particular on approaches of the social sciences. Using technology per se is rarely effective. It should be used to support good pedagogical practice, e. The The Teachning and learning toolkit , a meta-meta study only attributes a "moderate effect for moderate cost" to digital technology taken as such.
Studies summarized in the No signitificant difference website search for example for "technology" conveys a similar message. Technology can or cannot have an impact. Spector identifies a list of 10 actors that may intervene as supports of learning, performance and associated activities. Depending on the context, some of these roles may not exist and some may be held by a same person.
For each of these roles, digital tools play an increasing role, e. Educational technologist - depending on their training and experience - are suited to fill the roles of teacher, trainer, coach if they master the domain knowledge , instructional designer, media specialist, technology specialist, instructional developer, and assessment specialist. Training and program management requires some experience. These undertakings include planning, production, selection, management, and utilization of both components and entire instructional systems. Educational technology is a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through systematic identification, development, organization and utilization of a full-range of learning resources and through the management of these processes.
Educational technology is a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning.
Learn the latest developments in instructional design for online education and employ a variety of multimedia technology tools to design, create and evaluate engaging learning experiences. View Course.
Instructional Design Models Certificate Fully Online In this online course, you will explore traditional instructional design models and the progression of the learning design approach to creating online learning experiences. Michael Spector.