The Czech Republic covers an area of 78, square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic , with It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development.
The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
In , the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century.
In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation , the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. After the Battle of the White Mountain , the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization ; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment.
A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia , formed in following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. In , increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring , which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the Velvet Revolution , when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in , the Czech part lac.
Despite preaching well, he was not devoted to religion, received no appointment. This finished his hopes of a career in the church, at the age of twenty-five he became an author of satire. Five of the tales were translated into English by William Thomas Beckford as Popular Tales of the Germans, three were included in German Romance translated by Thomas Carlyle , they were translated into French a number of times, including as Contes populaires des Allemands by J. Lord Byron wrote a fragment of a novel , considered the first modern vampire story, Polidori wrote The Vampyre based on this, Mary Shelley went on to write Frankenstein.
Five of the eight stories in Fantasmagoriana were translated into English by Sarah Elizabeth Utterson as Tales of the Dead , including an abridged form of "Stumme Liebe" as "The Spectre-Barber", his collected folk tales continue to be adapted, such as the story of Libussa and Premysl in the film The Pagan Queen. Wild Hunts involve a ghostly or supernatural group of hunters passing in wild pursuit; the hunters may be either elves or fairies or the dead, the leader of the hunt is a named figure associated with Woden , but may variously be a historical or legendary figure like Theodoric the Great , the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag , the Welsh psychopomp Gwyn ap Nudd , biblical figures such as Herod , Gabriel or the Devil, or an unidentified lost soul or spirit either male or female.
Seeing the Wild Hunt was thought to presage some catastrophe such as war or plague , or at best the death of the one who witnessed it. People encountering the Hunt might be abducted to the underworld or the fairy kingdom. In some instances, it was believed that people's spirits could be pulled away during their sleep to join the cavalcade; the concept was developed based on comparative mythology by Jacob Grimm in Deutsche Mythologie as a folkloristic survival of Germanic pagan tradition, but comparable folk myths are found throughout Northern and Central Europe.
Grimm popularised the term Wilde Jagd for the phenomenon. Based on the comparative approach based on German folklore, the phenomenon is referred to as Wilde Jagd or Wildes Heer. In Germany , where it was known as the "Wild Army", or "Furious Army", its leader was given various identities, including Wodan, Knecht Ruprecht and Holda ; the Wild Hunt is known from post-medieval folklore. Other variations of the same folk myth are Caccia Morta, Caccia infernale, or Caccia selvaggia in Italy ; the concept of the Wild Hunt was first documented by the German folklorist Jacob Grimm, who first published it in his book Deutsche Mythologie.
It was in this work. Grimm's methodological approach was rooted in the idea — common in nineteenth-century Europe — that modern folklore represented a fossilized survival of the beliefs of the distant past. In developing his idea of the Wild Hunt, he mixed together recent folkloric sources with textual evidence dating to the Medieval and Early Modern periods; this approach came to be criticized within the field of folkloristics during the 20th century, as more emphasis was placed on the "dynamic and evolving nature of folklore".
Grimm interpreted the Wild Hunt phenomenon as having pre-Christian origins, arguing that the male figure who appeared in it was a survival of folk beliefs about the god Wodan, who had "lost his sociable character, his near familiar features, assumed the aspect of a dark and dreadful power He added his opinion. Discussing martial elements of the Wild Hunt, Grimm commented that "it marches as an army, it portends the outbreak of war.
Berlin Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,, inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London ; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree , which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers.
Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg , the Kingdom of Prussia , the German Empire , the Weimar Republic , the Third Reich.
Berlin in the s was the third largest municipality in the world.
After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in , Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues.
Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
4. Musäus and the Beginnings of the Fairytale
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.
Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale , that once constituted, together with the River Elbe , the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons , the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from , remnants of a house foundation dated to , found in excavations in Berlin Mitte ; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns.
The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In , they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.
In , Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See why. December This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Cambridge University Press. Etymological Dictionary of the German Language. Von Adolf Ettelt , 2nd edition, Trautenau, , p. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Page Archived from the original on Retrieved Praha: Fragment.
The Oxford Book of Story Poems. Czech Republic: Czech Television. Categories : Alpine folklore Bavarian folklore Czech folklore German folklore German legendary creatures Germany in fiction Polish folklore Fictional giants Fictional ogres Fictional characters who use magic Ore Mountains Medieval legends Supernatural legends Slavic legendary creatures.
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Related Images. YouTube Videos. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. Netherlandish Proverbs.
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Hansel and Gretel , Arthur Rackham , Dead spruce s on the northern, Polish side of the range. Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia as the heart of Europa regina , Silesia in an early period of Poland's fragmentation , — Polish names of Silesian cities, from a Prussian official document published in Berlin during the Silesian Wars.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history. In this painting of Lady Godiva by Jules Joseph Lefebvre , the authentic historical person is fully submerged in the legend, presented in an anachronistic high mediaeval setting. Holger Danske , a legendary character. Giants Mata and Grifone, celebrated in the streets of Messina , Italy, the second week of August, according to a legend are founders of the Sicilian city.
The mediaeval legend of Genevieve of Brabant connected her to Treves. Ivan Bilibin 's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the Beautiful.